Exam Content

C. Ped (C) Exam Content

Anatomy of the Lower Limb

  • Anatomical terminology for structures and positions (eg., condyle, interphalangeal, abduction, sagittal)
  • Skeleton, muscles, ligaments, tendons (specific detail re locations, actions, attachments)
  • Circulatory and nervous systems (only in general – pathways, supplies, pulses)
  • Surface anatomy (assessment landmarks)
  • Anatomical anomalies and deformities (eg., hallux limitus, claw toes, equinus, tarsal coalition, etc.)

Diseases/Conditions which affect the Lower Limb

  • Etiology, symptoms, effects and complications of diseases which affect the legs and feet (eg., Diabetes, Cerebral Palsy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Arthritis, Poliomyelitis, Sever’s Disease, Freiberg’s Disease, etc.)
  • Common acute and overuse injuries (eg., Morton’s neuroma; plantar fasciitis; metatarsalgia; Achilles tendonitis; patello-femoral pain syndrome; sprains, strains and fractures; etc.)
  • Dermatological problems (eg., warts, callouses, corns, etc.)


  • Gait determinants (i.e., phases of gait; forces; muscle activity and interactions of joints during
    gait cycle)
  • Gait assessment for lower limb problems, eg., recognition of anomalies and typical
    compensatory actions

Pedorthic Assessment

  • Recognition of typical symptomologies through palpation; surface anatomy; ranges-of-motion; patient history; gait analysis; wear patterns; etc.

Orthotic Fabrication

  • Topcover materials, shell materials, positive casts (milled and plaster), weight-to-stiffness ratio, cast modification, footwear modifications

Pedorthic Management

  • Generally accepted pedorthic approaches for supporting, accommodating and/or altering biomechanics of children, athletes, adults, and geriatrics
  • Shoe anatomy and terminology; pedorthic footwear fitting; orthopaedic devices; shoe modifications; orthotic materials; casting procedures; etc. (e.g. – metatarsal bar, Thomas heel, hallux valgus night splint, elevations, wedges, rocker soles, buttresses/flares; fitting checkpoints, foam impression, plaster casting, etc.)

Principles of Behaviour

  • Content of The College of Pedorthics of Canada and the Pedorthic Association of Canada’s Code of Ethics and Scope of Practice.